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Essay On Evils Of Gender Discrimination

Gender Discrimination, as the term signifies, is discrimination or discriminatory behaviour based on gender. The stereotypical mindset of people in the past has led to the discrimination that women face today. According to Kahle Wolfe, in 2015, women earned 83% of the income paid to men by working the same hours. Almost all women are not only discriminated against based on their salaries but also on their looks. Further, most women are allowed to follow a certain dress code depending upon the work field and the dress women wear also decides their future career.

essay on evils of gender discrimination

Further, gender-based discrimination is evident across the globe in a plethora of things, including sports, education, health and law. Every 1 out of 3 women in the world is abused in various forms at some point in their lives by men. This social evil is present in most parts of the world; in India, women are burnt to death if they are incapable of affording financial requirements; in Egypt, women are killed by society if they are sensed doing something unclean in or out of their families, whereas in South Africa baby girls are abandoned or killed as they are considered as burden for the family. Thus gender discrimination can be only eliminated from society by educating people about giving equal rights and respect to every gender.

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Middle Eastern countries rank the lowest in the Global Gender Gap Index because of the existence of gender discrimination. To make the situations better, we must put an end to female foeticide and other inhumane activities like child marriage and treating women as an object.

Many Middle Eastern countries, including India, face the problems caused due to gender inequality. Gender inequality or gender discrimination, in simple terms, implies that the segregation and unequal treatment of individuals depending on their gender.

Trans women in the United States have encountered the subject of anti-trans stigma, which includes criminalization, dehumanization, and violence against those who identify as transgender. From a societal standpoint, a trans person can be victim to the stigma due to lack of family support, issues with health care and social services, police brutality, discrimination in the work place, cultural marginalisation, poverty, sexual assault, assault, bullying, and mental trauma. The Human Rights Campaign tracked over 128 cases[clarification needed] that ended in fatality against transgender people in the US from 2013 to 2018, of which eighty percent included a trans woman of color. In the US, high rates of Intimate Partner violence impact trans women differently because they are facing discrimination from police and health providers, and alienation from family. In 2018, it was reported that 77 percent of transgender people who were linked to sex work and 72 percent of transgender people who were homeless, were victims of intimate partner violence.[83]

The caste system in India which leads to untouchability (the practice of ostracizing a group by segregating them from the mainstream society) often interacts with gender discrimination, leading to a double discrimination faced by Dalit women.[99] In a 2014 survey, 27% of Indians admitted to practicing untouchability.[100]

Gender biases also exist in product and service provision.[119] The term "Women's Tax", also known as "Pink Tax", refers to gendered pricing in which products or services marketed to women are more expensive than similar products marketed to men. Gender-based price discrimination involves companies selling almost identical units of the same product or service at comparatively different prices, as determined by the target market. Studies have found that women pay about $1,400 a year more than men due to gendered discriminatory pricing. Although the "pink tax" of different goods and services is not uniform, overall women pay more for commodities that result in visual evidence of feminine body image.[120][xxxi]

Females are underrepresented in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) at all levels of society. Fewer females are completing STEM school subjects, graduating with STEM degrees, being employed as STEM professionals, and holding senior leadership and academic positions in STEM. This problem is exacerbated by the gender pay gap; family role expectations; lack of visible role models or mentors; discrimination and harassment; and bias in hiring and promotion practices.[125]

Gender stereotypes arise from the socially approved roles of women and men in the private or public sphere, at home or in the workplace. In the household, women are typically seen as mother figures, which usually places them into a typical classification of being "supportive" or "nurturing". Women are expected to want to take on the role of a mother and take on primary responsibility for household needs.[162] Their male counterparts are seen as being "assertive" or "ambitious" as men are usually seen in the workplace or as the primary breadwinner for his family.[163] Due to these views and expectations, women often face discrimination in the public sphere, such as the workplace.[163] Women are stereotyped to be less productive at work because they are believed to focus more on family when they get married or have children.[164]A gender role is a set of societal norms dictating the types of behaviors which are generally considered acceptable, appropriate, or desirable for people based on their sex. Gender roles are usually centered on conceptions of femininity and masculinity, although there are exceptions and variations.

While in many countries, the problem lies in the lack of adequate legislation, in others the principal problem is not as much the lack of a legal framework, but the fact is that most women do not know their legal rights. This is especially the case as many of the laws dealing with women's rights are of recent date. This lack of knowledge enables to abusers to lead the victims (explicitly or implicitly) to believe that their abuse is within their rights. This may apply to a wide range of abuses, ranging from domestic violence to employment discrimination.[173][174] The United Nations Development Programme states that, in order to advance gender justice, "Women must know their rights and be able to access legal systems".[175]

Perhaps this scandal will offer an opening to debates about how to address long-standing gendered inequalities in the medical field and beyond. One hopes it will also initiate further debates about the social costs of such discrimination on the medical profession as a workplace and a place of care.

Racism (oppression and inequity founded on ethno-racial differences), sexism and gender discrimination (oppression and inequity based on gender bias in attitudes), and homophobia and transphobia (discrimination, fear, hostility, and violence towards nonheterosexual and transgender people, respectively) can also affect access to HIV services. However, little is known about how these different forms of stigma and discrimination interact (intersect). A better understanding of the effect of intersecting stigmas on people living with HIV could help in the development of stigma reduction interventions and HIV prevention, treatment and care programs, and could help to control global HIV infection rates. In this qualitative study (an analysis of people's attitudes and experiences rather than numerical data), the researchers investigate the intersection of HIV-related stigma, racism, sexism and gender discrimination, homophobia and transphobia among marginalized HIV-positive women in Ontario, Canada. As elsewhere in the world, HIV infection rates are increasing among women in Canada. Nearly 25% of people living with HIV in Canada are women and about a quarter of all new infections are in women. Moreover, there is a disproportionately high infection rate among marginalized women in Canada such as sex workers and lesbian, bisexual, and queer women.

Stigma may be based on multiple aspects of one's actual or perceived identity or group membership, such as HIV-positive serostatus, race and ethnicity, and sexual orientation. Key issues identified in previous research with populations at elevated risk for HIV infection in Canada include: HIV-related stigma, racism, sexism and gender discrimination, homophobia, and transphobia. HIV-related stigma refers to the devaluing of people who are HIV-positive or associated with HIV and AIDS and may result in discrimination based on actual or perceived HIV-positive serostatus [12]. Numerous studies across the globe have documented negative associations between HIV-related stigma and well being of PLHIV. For example, a meta-analysis of 24 studies conducted with PLHIV in North America documented correlations between higher rates of HIV-related stigma and higher levels of deleterious mental and physical health outcomes [13].

This substantial evidence highlights the alarming health impacts of HIV-related stigma, racism, sexism, homophobia, and transphobia, yet considerably less attention has been given to understanding the intersection of these forms of stigma. A key facet missing from most HIV-related stigma research is the association between HIV-related stigma and other forms of stigma. A recent HIV-related stigma systematic review [7] and meta-analysis [13] highlighted that most research has examined these forms of stigma and discrimination separately. For example, in a meta-analysis of 24 studies examining health and demographic correlates of HIV-related stigma among PLHIV in North America, only two studies examined race/ethnicity and three examined gender [13]. Mahajan and colleague's (2008) systematic review of HIV-related stigma recommended that future research develop a comprehensive conceptual model for HIV-related stigma that includes overlapping stigma associated with race, gender, and sexual orientation. The present study endeavors to develop such a model utilizing the concept of intersectionality [7].


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